Nursing updating electronic mars
Public availability of information from trials also is necessary to support consumers in their self-care, disease management, and medication self-management.
For example, restriction on the publication of a drug’s side effects can affect a prescriber’s ability to choose the best drug for a patient or to identify and respond to an adverse reaction in a timely manner; lax enforcement of regulatory requirements for drug labeling can result in product confusion in a high-stress, fast-paced clinical setting; formulary restrictions can force a switch to a medication that may be less appropriate for a patient than the one initially prescribed; or the failure to document all of the medications a patient is taking (including OTCs and dietary supplements) can cause a drug–drug interaction that could have been prevented.
Currently, the potential for harm is present throughout the system.
Harm can be due to any number of factors, many of which are now in the national spotlight, including undisclosed harmful side effects of a drug for specific patient populations; lax follow-through on regulatory responsibility after product approval; human error in prescribing, dispensing, administering, and monitoring effects in patients; and inadequate patient activation and education.
Most often this is the case: medication errors are the result of a problem incurred during the prescribing, dispensing, administration, or monitoring phases of the medication-use system.
Nevertheless, both aspects of causation—how the drug is prepared (developed, regulated, distributed) and how it is used in clinical practice or self-care—must be addressed if errors in the medication-use system are to be reduced and prevented.
The key points at which important interventions can be implemented are identified in Figure 2-1.